Zengling Yanga,b, Lujia Hana,b,*, Qiongfei Lic, Xian Liua,b
a College of Engineering, China Agricultural University , Beijing 100083 , P. R. China
b State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Beijing 100091, P. R. China
c Shanghai Finance University , Shanghai 201209, P. R. China
* Correspondence to: Lujia Han, China Agricultural University (East Campus), Box191, Beijing 100083, P. R.
China, E-mail: email@example.com ; firstname.lastname@example.org ; Fax: +86-10-62736778; Tel: +86-10-62736313
The safe and healthy use of meat and bone meal (MBM) in animal Feed Industry is of public concern for the risk of the transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE).
The objective of the present work was to develop a Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) technique suitable for detecting and quantifying contaminating levels of MBM in concentrate supplement and fishmeal.
To this end, Partial Least Squares (PLS) discriminant analysis and a Modified Partial Least Squares (MPLS) quantitative analysis, using visible and NIRS, were developed. 235 concentrate supplement, 135 fishmeal and 58 MBM samples were collected. Adulterated samples were prepared in laboratory by spiking concentrate supplement with varying amounts (5 to 350 g/kg) of MBM and by spiking fishmeal with varying amounts (10 to 320 g/kg) of MBM according to a factorial design of randomized blocks. PLS discriminant analysis models developed with mathematic pre-treatment 1,4,4,1, successfully detected concentrate supplement and fishmeal adulterated with MBM. External validation indicated that all samples were discriminated correctly. MPLS quantitative models, developed with mathematic pre-treatment 1,4,4,1, also successfully predicted the MBM in concentrate supplement and fishmeal with standard error of cross-validation (SECV) of 16.44 g/kg and 27.89 g/kg and ratio of the standard deviation of the validation set to the standard error of prediction (RPD) of 4.31 and 3.37 respectively.
The calibration and validation results confirm that NIRS could provide the feed industry and inspection bodies with a rapid, non-destructive and non-invasive technique for the detection and quantification of MBM in concentrate supplement and fishmeal.
Concentrate supplement; Fishmeal; Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS); Meat and Bone Meal (MBM); Qualitative; Quantitative